Research Progress and Performance Improvement Strategies of Hard Carbon Anode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries

Xiuping Yin, School of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
Yufeng Zhao, School of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
Jiujun Zhang, School of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China

Abstract

This paper systematically summarizes the research progress of hard carbon anode materials in sodium ion batteries (SIBs) and the development of the corresponding sodium storage mechanism in recent years, and reviews the performance improvement strategies of hard carbon materials from the aspects of structural design and electrolyte regulation. The effects of the selection of precursors, carbonization temperature, pretreatment, pore formers, heteroatom doping, material compounding, electrolyte regulation and pre-sodiumization on the sodium storage performance of hard carbon anode materials are briefly described. This paper provides new insights into the design, synthesis and electrolyte matching of high-performance and low-cost hard carbon materials, and looks forward to the direction of further research and development of SIB hard carbon anode materials in the future.