Recent Advances in Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy-based Pathogenic Bacteria Sensing
Pathogenic bacteria have been throwing great threat on human health for thousands of years. Their real-time monitoring is in urgent need as it could effectively halt the spread of pathogenic bacteria and thus reducing the risk to human health. Up till now, diverse technologies such as electrochemistry, optics, piezoelectricity and calorimetry have been developed for bacteria sensing. Therein, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS)-based sensors show great potential in point-of-care bacterial analysis because of their low-cost, short read-out time, good reproducibility, portable equipment construction. In this review, we will primarily summarize the typical applications of electrochemical impedance technology in bacteria sensing based on different electrodes in the last three years. As we know, the electrode materials play an extremely important role in the construction of EIS-based sensors because not only the immobilization of bio-recognition elements for bacteria, but also the sensitivity, economical efficiency and portability of the as-prepared sensors are mainly determined by the electrode materials. Therefore, in order to provide the new researchers with clear preparation process for EIS-based sensors fabricated with different electrodes, we try to classify the EIS-based sensors according to the different electrode platforms. Moreover, present difficulties, future directions and perspectives for their applications are also discussed. It can provide guidance for the new researchers on the study of novel EIS-based sensors for rapid, sensitive and accurate sensing of diverse pathogenic bacteria.