Ultramicroelectrode Experiments: Principles, Fabrications and Voltmmetric Behaviors
Due to the small size at least in one dimension (< 25 μm), ultramicroelectrode (UME) has small electric-double-layer capacitance, low IR drop, rapid mass transfer rate, fast response, high signal/noise ratio and high spatiotenporal resolution. UME is qualified not only to study the kinetics of fast electrode processes, but also to act as the probe of scanning electrochemical microscopies to obtain the localized chemical or electrochemical reactivity of the substrates. Thus, UMEs play a significant role in various research domains of electrochemistry, and has become an important electrochemical experimental method. Herein, we will introduce the basic principles, a simple fabrication method and voltammetric experimental protocols of UME, providing a guide to carry out the UME experiments.