Metal-Organic Frameworks for Electrochemical and Electrochemiluminescent Immunoassay

Xiao-Li Qin, College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China;Department of Chemistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada;
Zi-Ying Zhan, Department of Chemistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada;
Sara Jahanghiri, Department of Chemistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada;
Kenneth Chu, Department of Chemistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada
Cong-Yang Zhang, Department of Chemistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada;
Zhi-Feng Ding, Department of Chemistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada;

Abstract

Development of ultrasensitive, highly accurate and selective immunosensors is significant for the early diagnosis, screening, and monitoring of diseases. Electrochemical and electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay have both attracted great attention and become a current research hotspot due to their advantages such as good stability, high sensitivity and selectivity, wide linear range, and good controllability. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), as a new class of porous crystalline materials, have been widely applied in electrochemical and ECL immunosensors owing to their large specific surface area, good chemical stability, as well as adjustable pore size and nanoscale framework structures. Various MOF nanomaterials with different properties for the development of high-performance electrochemical and ECL immunosensors can be achieved, because they can be applied as sensitive platforms for immobilizing biological recognition molecules, enriching the trace analytes and signal molecules, amplifying the signal and enhancing the sensitivity of the electrochemical or ECL immunoassays. This review summarizes various types of MOFs-based immunosensors and their assay application, in which MOFs act as electrode matrices, signal probes (either as electroactive labels or as emitter labels), carriers or catalytic labels for sensitive electrochemical and ECL detection. Moreover, challenges and future opportunities for the development of the functionalized MOFs are discussed to provide a guidance on the design and fabrication of high-performance MOFs-based immunosensors in the future.