The tin(Sn) nano particles were embedded into the mesopores of hard carbon spherules(HCS) to form a composite anode material for lithium ion batteries.The structure of the obtained composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD) while its electrochemical performances were evaluated with galvanostatic cycling.It is found that the embedding Sn nanoparticles into porous HCS not only result in a composite material with high lithium storage capacity and capacity retention,but also increase the initial coulombic efficiency of the composite.Based on the infrared spectroscopic analysis,the enhanced initial coulombic efficiency is attributed to the inductive decomposition of the ROCO2Li species in the solid electrolyte interphase(SEI) layer by the tin nano particles in the composite.


porous hard carbon spherule, tin, composite, anode, lithium ion battery

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