The electrochemical inhomogeneities always exist at the interface of metal/solution,and play an important and often controlling role in localized corrosion of metals in a given environment.It is necessary to develop in situ imaging techniques for further studying the electrochemical and environmental inhomogeneities at the interface of metal/solution for the localized corrosion system.In this paper,various techniques with spatial resolution,such as scanning micro reference electrode(SMET),scanning electrochemical microscope(SECM),atomic force microscope(AFM),and scanning Kelvin probe(SKP),and their applications in corrosion studies were briefly reviewed.The chemical probes and array electrode have been developed.It was concentrated to describe our newly developed techniques of the scanning electrochemical probes,including SMET with highly spatial resolution combined system of SMET/STM.The development and application of the various scanning electrochemical probes are definally helpful for imaging electrochemical inhomogeneities on electrode surface and further understanding the mechanism for the localized corrosion of metals.


scanning micro reference electrode, scanning tunneling microscope, scanning electrochemical microscope, scanning Kelvinprobe, corrosion

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