Corresponding Author

Hai-xia WU(haixiawu@sjtu.edu.cn)


With an objective to develop electrode materials with high specific capacitance and good stability, a completely new nanocomposite of Polypyrrole (PPY) and graphene quantum dots (GQD) was successfully obtained through in-situ polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of GQD suspension. The obtained composites with different mass ratios were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). GQD enhanced electrochemical performance of PPY and, as supercapacitor electrodes, the PPY/GQD composites with the mass ratio of PPY to GQD at 50:1 showed a competitive specific capacitance of 485 F·g-1 at a scan rate of 0.005 V·s-1. The attenuation of the specific capacitance is about 2% after 2000 cycles. The high specific capacitance and good stability of the PPY/GQD nanocomposites are promising for applications in electrochemical supercapacitors.

Graphical Abstract


graphene oxide, graphene quantum dots, polypyrrole, supercapacitor

Publication Date


Online Available Date


Revised Date


Received Date



[1] Zhang K, Zhang L L, Zhao X S, et al. Graphene/polyaniline nanofiber composites as supercapacitor electrodes[J]. Chemistry of Materials, 2010, 22(4): 1392-1401.

[2] Jeong Y U, Manthiram A. Nanocrystalline manganese oxides for electrochemical capacitors with neutral electrolytes[J]. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2002, 149(11): A1419-A1422.

[3] Ogihara N, Kawauchi S, Okuda C, et al. Theoretical and experimental analysis of porous electrodes for lithium-ion batteries by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using a symmetric cell[J]. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2012, 159(7): A1034-A1039.

[4] Aravindan V, Chuiling W, Reddy M V, et al. Carbon coated nano-LiTi2(PO4)3 electrodes for non-aqueous hybrid supercapacitors[J]. Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2012, 14(16): 5808-5814.

[5] Lazzari M, Mastragostino M, Pandolfo A G, et al. Role of carbon porosity and ion size in the development of Ionic liquid based supercapacitors[J]. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2011, 158(1): A22-A25.

[6] Stenger-Smith J D, Guenthner A, Cash J, et al. Poly(propylenedioxy)thiophene-based supercapacitors operating at low temperatures[J]. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2010, 157(3): A298-A304.

[7] Bandhauer T M, Garimella S, Fuller T F. A critical review of thermal issues in lithium-ion batteries[J]. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2011, 158(3): R1-R25.

[8] Pandolfo A G, Hollenkamp A F. Carbon properties and their role in supercapacitors[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2006, 157(1): 11-27.

[9] Winter M, Brodd R J. What are batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors?[J]. Chemical Reviews, 2004, 104(10): 4245-4269.

[10] Zhang D C, Zhang X, Chen Y, et al. Enhanced capacitance and rate capability of graphene/polypyrrole composite as electrode material for supercapacitors[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2011, 196(14): 5990-5996.

[11] Lufrano F, Staiti P. Performance improvement of Nafion based solid state electrochemical supercapacitor[J]. Electrochimica Acta, 2004, 49(16): 2683-2689.

[12] Simon P, Gogotsi Y. Materials for electrochemical capacitors[J]. Nature Materials, 2008, 7(11): 845-854.

[13] Raymundo-Pin?ero E, Khomenko V, Frackowiak E, et al. Performance of manganese oxide/CNTs composites as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors[J]. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2005, 152(1): A229-A235.

[14] Bose S, Kim N H, Kuila T, et al. Electrochemical performance of a graphene-polypyrrole nanocomposite as a supercapacitor electrode[J]. Nanotechnology, 2011, 22(29): 295202-295210.

[15] Vix-Guterl C, Frackowiak E, Jurewicz K, et al. Electrochemical energy storage in ordered porous carbon materials[J]. Carbon, 2005, 43(6): 1293-1302.

[16] Hui Z H, Hong C, Lian L S, et al. The effect of the polyaniline morphology on the performance of polyaniline supercapacitors[J]. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 2005, 9(8): 574-580.

[17] Gupta V, Miura N. High performance electrochemical supercapacitor from electrochemically synthesized nanostructured polyaniline[J]. Materials Letters, 2006, 60(12): 1466-1469.

[18] Ingrama M D, Staeschea H, Ryderb K S. 'Activated' polypyrrole electrodes for high-power supercapacitor applications[J]. Solid State Ionics, 2004, 169(1/4): 51-57.

[19] Sharma R K, Rastogi A C, Desu S B. Pulse polymerized polypyrrole electrodes for high energy density electrochemical supercapacitor[J]. Electrochemistry Communications, 2008, 10(2): 268-272.

[20] Laforgue A, Simon P, Sarrazin C, et al. Polythiophene-based supercapacitors[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 1999, 80(1/2): 142-148.

[21] Geim A K. Graphene: Status and prospects[J]. Science, 2009, 324(5934): 1530-1534.

[22] Xu S Z, Zhou X J, Wu K, et al. Electrochemical performances of layered polypyrrole/chemically reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites as supercapacitor electrodes[J]. Journal of Electrochemistry, 2012, 18(3): 5-16.

[23] Banhart F, Kotakoski J, Krasheninnikov A V. Structural defects in graphene[J]. ACS Nano, 2010, 5(1): 26-41.

[24] Zhou X, Zhang Y, Wang C, et al. Photo-Fenton reaction of graphene oxide: A new strategy to prepare graphene quantum dots for DNA cleavage[J]. ACS Nano, 2012, 6(8): 6592-6599.

[25] Zhang J L, Yang H J, Shen G X, et al. Reduction of graphene oxide via L-ascorbic acid[J]. Chemical Communications, 2010, 46(7): 1112-1114.

[26] Zhou X J, Zhang J L, Wu H X, et al. Reducing gaphene oide via hdroxylamine: A simple and efficient route to graphene[J]. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2011, 115(24): 11957-11961.

[27] Fan Z, Wang K, Wei T, et al. An environmentally friendly and efficient route for the reduction of graphene oxide by aluminum powder[J]. Carbon, 2010, 48(5): 1686-1689.

[28] Vishnuvardhan T K, Kulkarni V R, Basavaraja C, et al. Synthesis, characterization and a.c. conductivity of polypyrrole/Y2O3 composites[J]. Bulletin of Materials Science, 2006, 29(1): 77-83.

[29] He C, Yang C H, Li Y F. Chemical synthesis of coral-like nanowires and nanowire networks of conducting polypyrrole[J]. Synthetic Metals, 2003, 139(2): 539-545.

[30] Peng J, Gao W, Gupta B K, et al. Graphene quantum dots derived from carbon fibers[J]. Nano Letters, 2012, 12(2): 844-849.

[31] Amarnath C A, Hong C E, Kim N H, et al. Efficient synthesis of graphene sheets using pyrrole as a reducing agent[J]. Carbon, 2011, 49(11): 3497-3502.

[32] Conway B E. Electrochemical supercapacitors: Scientific fundamentals and technological applications[M]. Springer, 1999: 444-445.

[33] Ramasamy R P, Ramadass P, Haran B S, et al. Synthesis, characterization and cycling performance of novel chromium oxide cathode materials for lithium batteries[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2003, 124(1): 155-162.

[34] Zeng F, Kuang Y, Liu G, et al. Supercapacitors based on high-quality graphene scrolls[J]. Nanoscale, 2012, 4(13): 3997-4001.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.