Corresponding Author

CHENG Xuan(xcheng@xmu.edu.cn)


The carbon coated lithium iron silicate (Li2FeSiO4/C) composites were prepared using less expansive iron starting material of soluble ferric nitrate through sol-gel process and solid state reaction. The theoretically calculated amounts of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 50% of vanadium (V) were introduced using NH4VO3 to obtain V-substituted Li2FeSiO4/C composites. It was found that the pure Li2FeSiO4/C composite exhibited a good crystallinity with P21/n and nearly no impurities being detected, while the V-substituted Li2FeSiO4/C composites showed major impurities of Li2SiO3 and V3O4/Fe3O4. The discharge capacities of 160.9 mAh·g-1 and 130.8 mAh·g-1 at C/16 were obtained for the pure and 5% V-substituted Li2FeSiO4/C composites, respectively. The degree of graphitization in amorphous carbon was enhanced and the quantities of carbon coated were lowered with the increase of V-substituted amounts. The electrochemical performance of 5% V-substituted Li2FeSiO4/C composite was not improved due to the presences of impurities which were directly linked to the amounts of V substitution.

Graphical Abstract


lithium iron silicates, vanadium substitution, cathode materials, lithium ion battery

Publication Date


Online Available Date


Revised Date


Received Date



[1] Islam M S, Dominko R, Masquelier C, et al. Silicate cathodes for lithium batteries: Alternatives to phosphates?[J]. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2011, 21(27): 9811-9818.

[2] Gong Z L, Li Y X, He G N, et al. Nanostructured Li2FeSiO4 electrode material synthesized through hydrothermal-assisted sol-gel process[J]. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 2008, 11(5): A60-A63.

[3] Chung S Y, Bloking J T, Chiang Y M. Electronically conductive phospho-olivines as lithium storage electrodes[J]. Nature Materials, 2002, 1(2): 123-128.

[4] Dominko R, Conte D E, Hanzel D, et al. Impact of synthesis conditions on the structure and performance of Li2FeSiO4[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2008, 178(2): 842-847.

[5] Zhang S, Deng C, Fu B L, et al. Doping effects of magnesium on the electrochemical performance of Li2FeSiO4 for lithium ion batteries[J]. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2010, 644(2): 150-154.

[6] Deng C, Zhang S, Yang S Y, et al. Synthesis and characterization of Li2Fe0.97M0.03SiO4 (M=Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+) cathode materials for lithium ion batteries[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2011, 196(1): 386-392.

[7] Gong Z L, Li Y X, Yang Y. Synthesis and characterization of Li2MnxFe1-xSiO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries[J]. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 2006, 9(12): A542-A544.

[8] Peng C L(彭春丽), Zhang J F(张佳峰), Cao X(曹璇), et al. Synthesis of Li2Fe0.9Mn0.1SiO4/C composites using glucose as carbon source[J]. Journal of Central South University of Technology(中南大学学报(英文版)), 2010, 17(3): 504-508.

[9] Li L M. Effects of roasting temperature and modification on properties of Li2FeSiO4-C cathode-1[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2009, 189(1): 45-50.

[10] Zhang S, Deng C, Fu B L, et al. Effects of Cr doping on the electrochemical properties of Li2FeSiO4 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries[J]. Electrochimica Acta, 2010, 55(28): 8482-8489.

[11] Li Y S, Cheng X, Zhang Y. Achieving high capacity by vanadium substitution into Li2FeSiO4[J]. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2012, 159(2): A69-A74.

[12] Hao H, Wang J, Liu J, et al. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance of Li2FeSiO4/C cathode materials doped by vanadium at Fe/Si sites for lithium ion batteries[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2012, 210: 397-401.

[13] Boulineau A, Sirisopanaporn C, Dominko R, et al. Polymorphism and structural defects in Li2FeSiO4[J]. Dalton Transactions, 2010, 39(27): 6310-6316.

[14] Nytén A, Abouimrane A, Armand M, et al. Electrochemical performance of Li2FeSiO4 as a new Li-battery cathode material[J]. Electrochemistry Communications, 2005, 7(2): 156-160.

[15] Sirisopanapor C, Boulineau A, Hanzel D, et al. Crystal structure of a new polymorph of Li2FeSiO4[J]. Inorganic Chemistry, 2010, 49(16): 7446-7451.

[16] Feng Y, He T, Alonso-Vante N. Oxygen reduction reaction on carbon-supported CoSe2 nanoparticles in an acidic medium[J]. Electrochimica Acta, 2009, 54(22): 5252-5256.

[17] Deng C, Zhang S, Gao Y, et al. Regeneration and characterization of air-exposed Li2FeSiO4[J]. Electrochimica Acta, 2011, 56(21): 7327-7333.

[18] Lv D, Wen W, Huang X, et al. A novel Li2FeSiO4/C composite: Synthesis,characterization and high storage capacity[J]. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2011, 21(26): 9506-9512.

[19] Botto I L, Vassallo M B, Baran E J, et al. IR spectra of VO2 and V2O3[J]. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 1997, 50(3): 267-270.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.