Corresponding Author

Quan-feng DONG(qfdong@xmu.edu.cn)


A platinum-hydrogen reference micro-electrode was made with electroplating Pd on the surface of Pt wire and then coating anion membrane material. This reference electrode was built-in the porous electrode of the all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB), and monitored the charging /discharging and self-discharging of the VRFB. The results indicated that the capacity fading of VRFB occurred due to the graduate reduction of V(IV) active species in the electrolyte and the accumulation of V(V) in the positive electrode, leading to nonequilibrium of active species between the positive and negative electrodes.

Graphical Abstract


reference electrode, all vanadium redox flow batteries, application

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