Corresponding Author

Ling HUANG(huangl@xmu.edu.cn)


The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material was synthesized by co-precipitation method with NaOH as a precipitant. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 materials were characterized by means of XRD、FTIR and SEM. The results indicated that the material belonged to space group and consisted of octahedral particles with the sizes of 3 ~ 6 μm. Electrochemical tests showed the first discharge specific capacity of 121.5 mAh·g-1 at 0.1C. After 150 cycles, about 99% of reversible capacity was retained for the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material. A combining potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT) with in-situ XRD measurement was applied for discussing the relationship between lattice parameter and the diffusion coefficient of lithium ion (DLi+) during the first charging-discharging processes. The DLi+ value measured by PITT was in the range of 10-10 ~ 10-11 cm2·s-1

Graphical Abstract


Li-ion battery, co-precipitation, the Li ion diffusion coefficient, in-situ XRD, potentiostatic intermittent titration technique

Publication Date


Online Available Date


Revised Date


Received Date



[1] Fang X, Lu Y, Ding N, et al. Electrochemical properties of nano- and micro-sized LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 synthesized via thermal decomposition of a ternary eutectic Li-Ni-Mn acetate[J]. Electrochimica Acta, 2010, 55(3): 832-837.
[2] Julien C M, Mauger A. Review of 5-V electrodes for Li-ion batteries: Status and trends[J]. Ionics, 2013, 19(7): 951-988.
[3] Gu Y J, Zang Q F, Liu H Q, et al. Characterization and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 prepared by a carbonate co-precipitation method[J]. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 2014, 9: 7712 - 7724.
[4] Xue Y, Wang Z, Yu F, et al. Ethanol-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with excellent long-term cyclability at high rate for lithium-ion batteries[J]. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2014, 2(12): 4185-4191.
[5] Lin H B, Zhang Y M, Hu J N, et al. LiNi0.5Nn1.5O4 nanoparticles: Synthesis with synergistic effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone and ethylene glycol and performance as cathode of lithium ion battery[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2014, 257: 37-44.
[6] Zhu Z, Yan H, Zhang D, et al. Preparation of 4.7 V cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by an oxalic acid-pretreated solid-state method for lithium-ion secondary battery[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2013, 224: 13-19.
[7] Liu D, Zhu W, Trottier J, et al. Spinel materials for high-voltage cathodes in Li-ion batteries[J]. RSC Advances, 2014, 4(1): 154-167.
[8] Tang S B, Lai M O, Lu L. Study on Li+-ion diffusion in nano-crystalline LiMn2O4 thin film cathode grown by pulsed laser deposition using CV, EIS and PITT techniques[J]. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2008, 111(1): 149-153.
[9] Yi T F, Yang S Y, Ma H T, et al. Effect of temperature on lithium-ion intercalation kinetics of LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 positive-electrode material[J]. Ionics, 2013, 20(3): 309-314.
[10] Yang M C, Xu B, Cheng J H, et al. Electronic, structural, and electrochemical properties of LiNixCuyMn2-x-yO4(0 < x< 0.5, 0 < y < 0.5) high-voltage spinel materials[J]. Chemistry of Materials, 2011, 23(11): 2832-2841.
[11] Xia H, Lu L. Li diffusion in spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition[J]. Physica Scripta, 2007, T129: 43-48.
[12] Rui X H, Ding N, Liu J, et al. Analysis of the chemical diffusion coefficient of lithium ions in Li3V2(PO4)3 cathode material[J]. Electrochimica Acta, 2010, 55(7): 2384-2390.
[13] Zhu W, Liu D, Trottier J, et al. In-situ X-ray diffraction study of the phase evolution in undoped and Cr-doped LixMn1.5Ni0.5o4 (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) 5-V cathode materials[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2013, 242: 236-243.
[14] Hai B, Shukla A K, Duncan H, et al. The effect of particle surface facets on the kinetic properties of LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 cathode materials[J]. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2013, 1(3): 759.
[15] Shen C H, Huang L, Lin Z, et al. Kinetics and structural changes of Li-rich layered oxide 0.5Li2MnO3.0.5LiNi(0.292)Co(0.375)Mn(0.333)O2 material investigated by a novel technique combining in situ XRD and a multipotential step[J]. ACS Applied Materials Interfaces, 2014, 6(15): 13271-13279.
[16] Feng J J, Huang Z P, Guo C, et al. An organic coprecipitation route to synthesize high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4[J]. ACS Applied Materials Interfaces, 2013, 5: 10227-10232.
[17] Sha O, Tang Z Y, Wang S L, et al. The multi-substituted LiNi0.475Al0.01Cr0.04Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 cathode material with excellent rate capability and cycle life[J]. Electrochimica Acta, 2012, 77: 250-255.
[18] Bao S J, Li C M, Li H L, et al. Morphology and electrochemistry of LiMn2O4 optimized by using different Mn sources[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2007, 164(2): 885-889.
[19] Wei Y J, Nam K, Kim K, et al. Spectroscopic studies of the structural properties of Ni substituted spinel LiMn2O4[J]. Solid State Ionics, 2006, 177(1/2): 29-35.
[20] Zhang L, Lv X Y, Wen Y X, et al. Carbon combustion synthesis of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and its use as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2009, 480(2): 802-805.
[21] Kunduraci M, Al-Sharab J F, Amatucci G G. High-power nanostructured LiMn2-xNixO4 high-voltage lithium-ion battery electrode materials: Electrochemical impact of electronic conductivity and morphology[J]. Chemistry of Materials, 2006, 18(15): 3585-3592.
[22] Liu D, Hamel-Paquet J, Trottier J, et al. Synthesis of pure phase disordered LiMn1.45Cr0.1Ni0.45O4 by a post-annealing method[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2012, 217: 400-406.
[23] Kim J H, Myung S T, Yoon C S, et al. Comparative study of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-? and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes having two crystallographic structures: and P4332[J]. Chemistry of Materials, 2004, 16(5): 906-914.
[24] Mukerjee S, Yang X Q, Sun X, et al. In situ synchrotron X-ray studies on copper-nickel 5 V Mn oxide spinel cathodes for Li-ion batteries[J]. Electrochimica Acta, 2004, 49(20): 3373-3382.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.