Corresponding Author

Zi-feng MA(zfma@sjtu.edu.cn)


Through different dry conditions and measuring by moisture test instrument, cathode pole pieces with different water contents of 0.3‰ ~ 0.7‰ were obtained to prepare lithium-ion batteries. Cycling performance and high rate performance at 1C ~ 5C discharge rates were tested. Moreover, ASR performances of LiFePO4 base lithium-ion batteries after 200 cycles with different water contents were investigated by EIS. The results showed that the cycle performance and rate performance were closely related to the water content of the electrode. When the water content went up to 0.6‰ the cycle stability and rate performance fell. Meanwhile, the internal resistance and the electrochemical reaction impedance increased after 200 cycles. The cells after running 200 cycles were dismantled to obtain the powder material which was studied by laser particle size analyzer, XRD and SEM to research the microstructure. The results revealed that when the water content exceeded 0.6‰ the obvious particle fracture phenomenon appeared. The XRD data indicated that the position of the main diffraction peak kept nearly the same and the crystal phase of the cathode material remained unchanged.

Graphical Abstract


water content, lithium iron phosphate, full cell, cycle performance

Publication Date


Online Available Date



[1] Armand M, Tarascon J M. Building better batteries[J]. Nature, 2008, 451(7179): 652-657.

[2] Tarascon J M, Armand M. Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries[J]. Nature, 2001, 414(6861): 359-367.

[3] Zhou X, Wang F, Zhu Y, et al. Graphene modified LiFePO4 cathode materials for high power lithium ion batteries[J]. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2011, 21(10): 3353-3358.

[4] Huang X J(黄学杰). Electric vehicles and Li-ion batteries[J]. Journal of Physics(物理), 2015, 44(1): 1-7.

[5] Zhang J B(张剑波), Lu L G(卢兰光), Li Z(李哲). Key technologies and fundamental academic issues for traction battery systems[J]. Journal of Automotive Safety and Energy(汽车安全与节能学报), 2012, 3(2): 87-104.

[6] V?yrynen A, Salminen J. Lithium ion battery production[J]. The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 2012, 46: 80-85.

[7] Perujo A, Ciuffo B. The introduction of electric vehicles in the private fleet: Potential impact on the electric supply system and on the environment. A case study for the Province of Milan, Italy[J]. Energy Policy, 2010, 38(8): 4549-4561.

[8] Wu N N(吴宁宁), An F Q(安富强), Yang D J(杨道均), et al. Investigations of moisture content and gas in LiMn2O4 based batter[J]. Chinese Journal of Power Sources(电源技术), 2014, 38(1): 35-37.. [9] Zhang H L(张海林), He X Y(和祥运), Li Y(李艳). Effects of electrode water content on the performance of Li-ion batteries [J]. Chinese Battery Industry(电池工业), 2013, 18(1/2): 44-46.

[10] Burns J C, Sinha N N, Jain G, et al. The impact of intentionally added water to the electrolyte of Li-ion cells I. Cells with graphite negative electrodes[J]. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2013, 160(11): A2281-A2287.

[11] Wu K(吴凯). Research on gas generation of Li4Ti5O12 based Li-ion power battery at elevated temperature[D]. Shanghai(上海): Shanghai Jiao Tong University(上海交通大学), 2014.

[12] Zhu J(朱静), Yu S J(于申军), Chen Z K(陈志奎), et al. Effect of water contamination on the electrochemical perrformance of lithium-ion battery[J]. Journal of Southchina Normal University: Natural Science Edition(华南师范大学学报:自然科学版), 2009, S1: 115-117.

[13] Zaghib K, Dontigny M, Charest P, et al. Aging of LiFePO4 upon exposure to H2O[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2008, 185(2): 698-710.

[14] Xu D(徐丹), Gao S(高珊), Zheng W D(郑卫东), et al. Properties of LIB cathode material LiFePO4 after extreme water soaking conditions[J]. Chinese Battery Industry(电池工业), 2012, 17(3): 161-164.

[15] Wang Z J(王子君). Research of laminated LiFePO4Li-ion battery swollen[D]. Tianjin(天津): Tianjin University(天津大学), 2009.

[16] Padhi A K, Nanjundaswamy K S, Goodenough J B D. Phospho olivines as positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries[J]. Journal of the electrochemical society, 1997, 144(4): 1188-1194.

[17] Yamada A, Chung S C, Hinokuma K. Optimized LiFePO4 for lithium battery cathodes[J]. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2001, 148(3): A224-A229.

[18] Li M L(李孟伦), Li Y D(李依达), Chen J T(陈杰泰), et al. Application and technology of aluminum bag lithium-ion polymer battery[J]. Advanced Materials Industry(新材料产业), 2007, 8: 24-29.

[19] Ohzuku T, Brodd R J. An overview of positive-electrode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2007, 174(2): 449-456.

[20] Zhang S S. A review on electrolyte additives for lithium-ion batteries[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2006, 162(2): 1379-1394.

[21] Zhang W H(张文华), Pei F(裴锋), Liu P(刘平), et al. Electrochemical impedance analysis of LiFePO4/C Batteries in cycling process[J]. Electronic Technology(电源技术), 2015, 39(1): 54-57.

[22] Sun X L(孙学磊), Dai Y N(戴永年), Yao Y(姚耀), et al. Pilot scale production of spherical LiFePO4/C cathode material[J]. The Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals(中国有色金属学报), 2011, 21(1): 125-130.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.