Corresponding Author

Shou-zhong YI(yi@vision-batt.com)


The structure, morphology and content of the as-prepared and the processed samples were characterized by the means of SEM and XRD. The discharge capacities and cycle life performances of the as-prepared and the processed samples were tested by electrochemical measurements with different rates. The results indicated that the 4BS technology which can affect the plate design, deep cycle capability and cycle life is a basic technology for the VRLA batteries. It was also confirmed that the contents and structures of α-PbO2 and β-PbO2 formed with different processing conditions can affect the performance of the VRLA batteries, suggesting that the production and formation of plates are the key control points of 4BS technology.

Graphical Abstract


lead-acid battery, process, 4BS

Publication Date


Online Available Date



[1] Jaiswal A, Chalasani S C. The role of carbon in the negative plate of the lead-acid battery[J]. Journal of Energy Storage, 2015, 1: 15-21.

[2] Dai Z X(戴忠旭), Wang D H(汪的华), Ke H H(柯豪昊), et a1. Studies of the preparation of electrodes from lead carbonate for lead-acid battery[J]. Journal of Electrochemistry(电化学), 2001, 6(1): 95-101.

[3] Kirchev A, Dumenil S, Alias M, et al. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part II: Operation of the negative plates[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2015, 279: 809-824.

[4] Foudia M, Matrakova M, Zerroual L. Effect of a mineral additive on the electrical performances of the positive plate of lead acid battery[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2015, 279: 146-150.

[5] Lang X S, Wang D L. The use of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate as positive active material additive for valve regulated lead-acid battery[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2014, 270: 9-13.

[6] Moncada A. Recent improvements in PbO2 nanowire electrodes for lead-acid battery[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2015, 275: 181-188.

[7] Mistretta M A. High-performance of PbO2 nanowire electrodes for lead-acid battery[J]. Joumal of Power Sources, 2014, 256: 72-79.

[8] Chang Y, Mao X X, Zhao Y F, et a1. Lead-acid battery use in the development of renewable energy systems in China[J]. Joumal of Power Sources, 2009, 191(1): 176-183.

[9] Tong Y B(童一波), Qiu X M(裘向明). Studies on the failure modes of stationary VRLA batteries[J]. Journal of Electrochemistry(电化学), 1997, 3(3): 302-307.

[10] Kamenev Y. Optimization of electrode paste composition and structure for improving energy and life characteristics of active materials for lead batteries[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2006, 159: 1440-1449.

[11] Zou X P(邹献平), Kang Z X(康宗轩), Huang Y L(黄毓岚). Reaction mechanism study of Pb electrodes in sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate solution by EQCM[J]. Joumal of Electrochemistry(电化学), 2015, 21(4): 362- 367.

[12] Hu X G(胡信国), Tong Y B(童一波), Mao X X(毛贤仙). The new development of valve regulated lead/acid bettery[J]. Chinese LABAT Man(蓄电池), 2001, 3: 10-22.

[13] Bashtavelova E, Winsel A. Paste structure and its influence oil theagglomerate of spheres parameters of the PbO2 electrodes[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 1995, 53(1): 175-183.

[14] Dai D B(戴德彬), Li Z Q(李中奇). Preparation and application of cathode additive 4BS in electric vehicle battery[J]. Electric Bicycle(电动自行车), 2009, 4(1): 30-31.

[15] Banerjee A, Shukla A K. Performance comparison for 12 V lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors with substrate-integrated and conventional pasted positive plates[J]. Ionics, 2015, 21(1): 201-212.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.