Corresponding Author

Song-yuan DAI;Zhan-ao TAN(tanzhanao@ncepu.edu.cn)


Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is a commonly used hole-transport material in the perovskite solar cells (PerSCs) structure of perovskite/fullerene planer heterojunction, but it also has a negative effect on the stability of device because of its acidity which will corrode metal oxide transparent electrodes. In this work, a WOx hole-transport layer with high work function was inserted into the PEDOT: PSS and FTO to enhance the stability and photovoltaic performance. The inserted WOx layer not only can avoid direct contact between PEDOT:PSS and FTO, but also can further reduce the contact barrier between the electrode interface. We studied the effect of WOx/PEDOT:PSS double-layered hole transport layers on the optical transmittance, the morphology and crystals of perovskite, the photovoltaic performance and the stability of the devices. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PerSCs can be improved from 10.56% (with PEDOT:PSS layer) to 12.96% with WOx/PEDOT:PSS double-layered hole transport layers, and the stability of the device has also been greatly improved.

Graphical Abstract

Publication Date


Online Available Date


Revised Date


Received Date



[1] Dong Q F, Fang Y J, Shao Y C, et al. Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 mu m in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals[J]. Science. 2015,347(6225):967-70.

[2] Xing G C, Mathews N, Sun S Y, et al. Long-Range Balanced Electron- and Hole-Transport Lengths in Organic-Inorganic CH3NH3PbI3[J]. Science. 2013,342(6156):344-7.

[3] Hodes G. Perovskite-Based Solar Cells[J]. Science. 2013,342(6156):317-8.

[4] Kojima A, Teshima K, Shirai Y, et al. Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells[J]. J Am Chem Soc. 2009,131(17):6050-+.

[5] Smolev S, Ku Z Y, Brueck S R J, et al. Resonant coupling to a dipole absorber inside a metamaterial: Anticrossing of the negative index response[J]. J Vac Sci Technol B. 2010,28(6): 1071-1023.

[6] Niu G D, Guo X D, Wang L D. Review of recent progress in chemical stability of perovskite solar cells[J]. J Mater Chem A. 2015,3(17):8970-80.

[7] Tiep N H, Ku Z, Fan H J. Recent Advances in Improving the Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells[J]. Adv Energy Mater. 2015:1501420.

[8] Mei A Y, Li X, Liu L F, et al. A hole-conductor-free, fully printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cell with high stability[J]. Science. 2014,345(6194):295-8.

[9] Chen W, Wu Y Z, Yue Y F, et al. Efficient and stable large-area perovskite solar cells with inorganic charge extraction layers[J]. Science. 2015,350(6263):944-8.

[10] You J, Meng L, Song T-B, et al. Improved air stability of perovskite solar cells via solution-processed metal oxide transport layers[J]. Nature Nanotechnology. 2015,11(1):75-81.

[11] Norrman K, Madsen M V, Gevorgyan S A, et al. Degradation Patterns in Water and Oxygen of an Inverted Polymer Solar Cell[J]. J Am Chem Soc. 2010,132(47):16883-92.

[12] Kim Y H, Lee S H, Noh J, et al. Performance and stability of electrolu minescent device with self-assembled layers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) and polyelectrolytes[J]. Thin Solid Films. 2006,510(1-2):305-10.

[13] Ionescu-Zanetti C, Mechler A, Carter S A, et al. Semiconductive polymer blends: Correlating structure with transport properties at the nanoscale (vol 16, pg 385, 2004)[J]. Adv Mater. 2004,16(7):579-.

[14] Shrotriya V, Li G, Yao Y, et al. Transition metal oxides as the buffer layer for polymer photovoltaic cells[J]. Appl Phys Lett. 2006,88(7):073508.

[15] Jung G H, Lim K G, Lee T W, et al. Morphological and electrical effect of an ultrathin iridium oxide hole extraction layer on P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction solar cells[J]. Sol Energ Mater Sol C. 2011,95(4):1146-50.

[16] Jeon N J, Lee J, Noh J H, et al. Efficient Inorganic Organic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Pyrene Aryla mine Derivatives as Hole-Transporting Materials[J]. J Am Chem Soc. 2013,135(51):19087-90.

[17] Ryu S Y, Noh J H, Hwang B H, et al. Transparent organic light-emitting diodes consisting of a metal oxide multilayer cathode[J]. Appl Phys Lett. 2008,92(2):023306.

[18] Li J Z, Yahiro M, Ishida K, et al. Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer[J]. Synthetic Met. 2005,151(2):141-6.

[19] Tan Z A, Li L J, Cui C H, et al. Solution-Processed Tungsten Oxide as an Effective Anode Buffer Layer for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells[J]. J Phys Chem C. 2012,116(35):18626-32.

[20] Im J H, Jang I H, Pellet N, et al. Growth of CH3NH3PbI3 cuboids with controlled size for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells[J]. Nature Nanotechnology. 2014,9(11):927-32.

[21] Choi G W, Lee K Y, Kim N H, et al. CMP characteristics and optical property of ITO thin film by using silica slurry with a variety of process parameters[J]. Microelectron Eng. 2006,83(11-12):2213-7.

[22] Lee K T, Lu S Y. Porous FTO thin layers created with a facile one-step Sn4+-based anodic deposition process and their potential applications in ion sensing[J]. J Mater Chem A. 2012,22(32):16259-68.

[23] Choi H, Mai C K, Kim H B, et al. Conjugated polyelectrolyte hole transport layer for inverted-type perovskite solar cells[J]. Nat Commun. 2015,6:7348-6.

[24] Raga S R, Jung M C, Lee M V, et al. Influence of Air Annealing on High Efficiency Planar Structure Perovskite Solar Cells[J]. Chem Mater. 2015,27(5):1597-603.

[25] Ye S Y, Sun W H, Li Y L, et al. CuSCN-Based Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cell with an Average PCE of 15.6%[J]. Nano Lett. 2015,15(6):3723-8.

[26] Burschka J, Pellet N, Moon S J, et al. Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells[J]. Nature. 2013,499(7458):316-+.

[27] Wang F Z(王福芝), Tan Z A(谭占鳌), Dai S Y(戴松元), et al. Recent advances in planar heterojunction organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells [J]. Acta Physica Sinica(物理学报). 2015,64(3):038401.

[28] He Y J, Zhao G J, Peng B, et al. High-Yield Synthesis and Electrochemical and Photovoltaic Properties of Indene-C-70 Bisadduct[J]. Adv Funct Mater. 2010,20(19):3383-9.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.