Corresponding Author

Yong CAO(yongcao@stu.xmu.edu.cn)


The carbon coated lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4/C) composite cathode material was prepared by using iron phosphate process. The effects of jet milling and classifying process on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4/C cathode material in full batteries were investigted. Scanning electron microscopic analyses suggested that the globose secondary particles were crustily crushed during the jet milling and classifying process, which would further result in lower tap density and carbon content. The LiFeP4/C composite cathode materials with different physical characteristics were further tested in full batteries to evaluate the electrochemical properties. The results showed no obvious differences in capacity, AC resistance, DC resistance and power density. However, the globose LiFePO4/C exhibited far better performances in low temperature discharge capacity retention rate and high temperature cycle retention than that of granulated composite cathode, which probably arisen from the certain delamination and destruction of conductive network during the jet milling and classifying process.

Graphical Abstract


LiFePO4/C, jet milling and classifying, full battery, electrochemical performance.

Publication Date


Online Available Date


Revised Date


Received Date



[1] Beninati S, Damen L, Mastragostino M. Fast sol-gel synthesis of LiFePO4/C for high power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicle application[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2009, 194(2): 1094-1098.

[2] Maier J. Nanoionics: ion transport and electrochemical storage in confined system[J]. Nature Materials, 2005, 4(11): 805-815.

[3] Wu K P, Peng Z D, Cao Y B, et al. Synthesis and characterization of high-rate LiMn1/3Fe2/3PO4/C composite using nano MnFe2O4 as precursor[J]. Materials letters, 2015, 152: 217-219.

[4] Cui Y, Zhao X L, Guo R S. High rate electrochemical performances of nanosized ZnO and carbon co-coated LiFePO4 cathode[J]. Materials Research Bulletin, 2010, 45(7): 844-849.

[5] Molenda J, Ojczyk W, ?wierczek K, et al. Diffusional mechanism of deintercalation in LiFe1ˆ’yMnyPO4 cathode material[J]. Solid State Ionics, 2006, 177(26-32): 2617-2624.

[6] Xu G J, Liu Z H, Cui G L, et al. Strategies for improving the cyclability and thermo-stability of LiMn2O4-based batteries at elevated temperatures[J]. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2015(3): 4092-4123.

[7] Huang H, Yin S C, L. F. Nazar. Approaching theoretical capacity of LiFePO4 at room temperature at high rates[J]. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 2001, 4(10): 170-172.

[8] Swain P, Viji M, Pavana S V, et al. Carbon coating on the current collector and LiFePO4 nanoparticles€“Influence of sp2 and sp3-like disordered carbon on the electrochemical properties[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2015, 293: 613-625.

[9] Rangappa D, Sone K, Kudo T, et al. Directed growth of nanoarchitectured LiFePO4 electrode by solvothermal synthesis and their cathode properties[J]. Journal of Power Sources. 2010, 195(18): 6167-6171.

[10] Qian L C, Xia Y, Zhang W K , et al. Electrochemical synthesis of mesoporous FePO4 nanoparticles for fabricating high performance LiFePO4/C cathode materials[J]. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2012, 152:128-133.

[11] Peng W X, Jiao L F, H Y Gao, et al. A nove sol-gel method based on FePO4·2H2O to synthesize submicrometer structured LiFePO4/C cathode material[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2011, 196(5): 2841-2847.

[12] Yamada A, Chung S C, Hinokuma K, Optimized LiFePO4 for lithium battery cathodes[J]. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 148 (2001) A224-229.

[13] Tang Z Y(唐致远), Gao F(高飞), Xue J J(薛建军). Effects of Ball-milling on the Preparation of LiFePO4 Cathode Material for Lithium-ion Batteries(球磨方式对锂离子正极材料LiFePO4性能的影响)[J]. Chinese Journal of Inorganic Chemistry(无机化学学报), 2007, 23(8):1415-1420.

[14] Gao F(高飞), Tang Z Y(唐致远), Xue J J(薛建军). Preparation and characterization of nano-particle LiFePO4 and LiFePO4/C by spray-drying and post-annealing method[J]. Chinese Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (无机化学学报), 2007, 23(9): 1603-1608.

[15] Zhang Y H, Song W J, Lin S L, et al. A novel model of the initial state of charge estimation for LiFePO4 batteries[J]. J. Power Sources, 2014, 248(15): 1028-1033.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.