Corresponding Author

Kang-hua CHEN(kanghuachen@csu.edu.cn)


Positive material Li2MnO3 shows the highest ratio of lithium to manganese among lithium-rich materials and exhibites the theoretical capacity up to 458 mAh·g -1, making it one of the most promising cathode materials. However, this material has the intrinsic low electrical conductivity and poor cycle stability. In this paper, Li2MnO3, the lithium-rich positive material, was prepared by sol-gel method using acetate as raw material and citric acid as a complexing agent. By using SnC2O4 as a tin source, Sn 4+ instead of Mn 4+ was introduced to obtain the materials with different doping amounts. The resultant solution was evaporated at 80 °C under vigorous stirring to get a viscous gel. Next, the resulting gel was dried at 120 °C for 12 h. Finally, the gathered precursor was calcined at 600 °C for 6 h under an air atmosphere to obtain the target material. It was found that the proper content of Sn 4+ doping could increase the specific discharge capacity of the material, obtaining as high as 256.3 mAh·g -1 at low current, but had a detrimental influence on the rate performance. On this basis, SnCl2 was used for doping modification, and the Sn 4+ and Cl - co-doping into Li2MnO3 revealed a better developed layered structure with high conductivity. The intensity of super lattice peak formed between 2θ = 20° and 30° was increased by Cl-doping, indicating the ordered Li/Mn in the TM layer. Especially, this Sn-Cl co-doped Li2MnO3 sample delivered the relatively high specific discharge capacity of approximate 160 mAh·g -1 after 80 cycles at 20 mA·g -1. At the high current density of 400 mA·g -1, this material provided the specific discharge capacity of 116 mAh·g -1, which is about twice that of the undoped sample.

Graphical Abstract


lithium ion battery, positive electrode material, Li2MnO3, SnC2O4, SnCl2, Sn-Cl co-doping

Publication Date


Online Available Date


Revised Date


Received Date



[1] Kong F T, Longo R C, Yeon D H , et al. Multivalent Li-site doping of Mn oxides for Li-ion batteries[J]. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2015,119(38):21904-21912.
doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b06844 URL

[2] Zuo Y X, Li B, Jiang N , et al. A high-capacity O2-type Li-rich cathode material with a single-layer Li2MnO3 superstructure[J]. Advanced Materials, 2018,30(16):1707255-1707255.
doi: 10.1002/adma.201707255 URL pmid: 29532965

[3] Xiang Y H, Wu X . Enhanced electrochemical performances of Li2MnO3 cathode materials by Al doping[J]. Ionics, 2018,24(1):83-89.

[4] Wang Z Q, Wu M S, Xu B , et al. Improving the electrical conductivity and structural stability of the Li2MnO3 cathode via P doping[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2016,658:818-823.

[5] Zhao W, Xiong L L, Xu Y L , et al. High performance Li2MnO3/rGO composite cathode for lithium ion batteries[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2017,349:11-17.

[6] Tan X, Liu R, Xie C , et al. Modified structural characteristics and enhanced electrochemical properties of oxygen-deficient Li2MnO3-δ obtained from pristine Li2MnO3[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2018,374:134-141.

[7] Xin D, Xu Y L, Xiong L L , et al. Sodium substitution for partial lithium to significantly enhance thecycling stability of Li2MnO3 cathode material[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2013,243(6):78-87.
doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.05.155 URL

[8] House R A, Jin L Y, Maitra U , et al. Lithium manganese oxyfluoride as a new cathode material exhibiting oxygen redox[J]. Energy & Environmental Science, 2018,11(4):926-932.

[9] Zhao Y J, Xia M H, Hu X S , et al. Effects of Sn doping on the structural and electrochemical properties of Li1.2Ni0.2-Mn0.8O2 Li-rich cathode materials[J]. Electrochimica Acta, 2015,174:1167-1174.
doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2015.05.068 URL

[10] Wang J L, Wu H L, Cui Y H , et al. A new class of ternary compound for lithium-ion battery: from composite to solid solution[J]. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2018,10(6):5125-5132.
doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b15494 URL pmid: 29384646

[11] Chen H, Hu Q Y, Peng W J , et al. New insight into the modification of Li-rich cathode material by stannum treatment[J]. Ceramics International, 2017,43(14):10919-10926.

[12] Qiao Q Q, Qin L, Li G R , et al. Sn-stabilized Li-rich layered Li (Li0.17Ni0.25Mn0.58) O2 oxide as a cathode for advanced lithium-ion batteries[J]. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2015,3(34):17627-17634.

[13] Chen Y H, Jiao Q L, Liang W , et al. Synjournal and characterization of Li1.05Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O1.95X0.05(X = Cl, Br) cathode materials for lithium-ion battery[J]. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 2013,16(9):845-849.

[14] Kubota K, Kaneko T, Hirayama M , et al. Direct synjournal of oxygen-deficient Li2MnO3-x for high capacity lithium battery electrodes[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2012,216:249-255.
doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.061 URL

[15] Yan H J, Li B, Zhen Y , et al. First-principles study: Tuning the redox behavior of lithium-rich layered oxides by chlorine doping[J]. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2017,121(13):7155-7163.

[16] Wu S( 吴莎 ). Study on modification of Li2MnO3 cathode material for lithium ion battery by doping[D]. Hubei: Wu-han University of Technology, 2015.

[17] Klein A, Axmann P, Yada C , et al. Improving the cycling stability of Li2MnO3 by surface treatment[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2015,288:302-307.
doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.145 URL

[18] Amalraj S F, Burlaka L, Julien C M , et al. Phase transitions in Li2MnO3 electrodes at various states-of-charge[J]. Electrochimica Acta, 2014,123(123):395-404.
doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2014.01.051 URL

[19] Amalraj S F, Markovsky B, Sharon D , et al. Study of the electrochemical behavior of the “inactive” Li2MnO3[J]. Electrochimica Acta, 2012,78:32-39.
doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2012.05.144 URL



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.