Corresponding Author

Xue-Ming Chen(chenxm@zju.edu.cn)


Sodium hypochlorite disinfection has many advantages, including reliable operation, low cost, easily available raw materials. It is, therefore, suitable for disinfection of drinking water in remote rural areas. The service life and chlorine evolution efficiency of the anode are the main factors restricting the performance of the sodium hypochlorite generator. The special conditions of frequent shutdown and low electrolyte concentration in the rural drinking water application also put forward high requirements on the performance of the anode. In this study, Ti/RuO2-IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5,a new-type and efficient chlorine evolution anode, was prepared by thermal decomposition method and further applied to disinfection of drinking water in rural areas. Comparison was also made between this anode with Ti/RuO2-SnO2-Sb2O5, Ti/RuO2-TiO2 and Ti/RuO2-TiO2-IrO2 anodes. The surface morphology, elements and composition of the anodes were examined by SEM, EDS and XRD. The effects of sodium chloride concentration, current density and shutdown frequency on chlorine evolution efficiency and lifetime of the anodes were also investigated. It was found that the Ti/RuO2-IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 electrode exhibited strong activity and high stability, and its coating components were highly fused into a solid solution with dense structure and great stability. The current efficiency of Ti/RuO2-IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 anode reached 91.55% in 15 g·L-1 NaCl solution at 400 A·m-2 and 20℃. In the enhanced electrolysis lifetime experiment, the service lifetime of Ti/RuO2-IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 anode reached 231 h, which was 77 times longer than that of Ti/RuO2-TiO2 anode. It was estimated that the Ti/RuO2-IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 anode could be used for 20 years under the current density of 400 A·m-2. Therefore, compared with the traditional electrode materials, Ti/RuO2-IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 achieved higher chlorine evolution efficiency and stability. It could be used for a long time in the condition of frequent shutdown and low electrolyte concentration. Besides, it could greatly reduce the equipment operation cost, the raw material feeding frequency and the impurities introduction. Thus, the Ti/RuO2-IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 anode developed in this studymight be suitable for rural drinking water disinfection application.

Graphical Abstract


Ti/RuO2-IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5, rural drinking water, sodium hypochlorite generator, enhanced electrolytic life

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