Corresponding Author

Xin-Sheng Zhang(xszhang@ecust.edu.cn)


Acetylpyrazine is an important spice and also plays important roles in biology, medicine and other fields. However, the wastewater containing ammonium persulfate, ferric ion (Fe3+), pyrazine, and a large amount of ammonium sulfate was produced during the production of acetylpyrazine. In this study, ammonium sulfate in acetylpyrazine wastewater was electrolytically converted into ammonium persulfate for economic benefits. Using platinum as an anode and graphite as a cathode, the influence factors of the electrolysis process (including the composition of the anolyte, the current density, the temperature, etc.) were firstly investigated without interference from other compositions. Under the optimal condition, namely, the anolyte (50 g) composition consisted of 37wt.% ammonium sulfate, 15wt.% sulfuric acid, and 0.06wt.% ammonium thiocyanate, and the catholyte composition was 25wt.% sulfuric acid, the current density was 8000 A·m-2, the anolyte temperature was 30 oC, and the passed electric charge was 2 A·h, the current efficiency for the production of ammonium persulfate could be as high as 89.65% when the mass fraction of ammonium persulfate reached to 15.83wt.%. Then, the effects of Fe3+ and pyrazine on electrolysis were investigated. The presence of Fe3+ in the anolyte would affect the purity of ammonium persulfate precipitation, while the presence of pyrazine would affect the current efficiency for the production of ammonium persulfate, for example, the current efficiency would reduce by 10% when the concentration of pyrazine in the anolyte was only 0.015 mol·L-1. Therefore, it is necessary to remove Fe3+ and degrade pyrazine in the wastewater before electrolysis. And according to the composition of acetylpyrazine wastewater, the simulated wastewater was prepared to investigate the pretreatment effect. The concentration of Fe3+ was dramatically reduced to 2.7 mg·L-1 when the pH value of the simulated wastewater was adjusted to about 7 through the addition of ammonia. Meanwhile, the sulfate radical oxidation method was adopted to degrade pyrazine in the simulated wastewater, showing 98.43% of the pyrazine degradation by activating the ammonium persulfate of 0.65 mol·L-1 to generate the sulfate radicals at 80 oC. Finally, the current efficiency of 85.21% was achieved by using the pretreated acetylpyrazine actual wastewater as an anolyte, which proved the feasibility of electrochemical conversion of ammonium sulfate to ammonium persulfate in acetylpyrazine wastewater.

Graphical Abstract


acetylpyrazine wastewater, ammonium sulfate, electrolysis, ammonium persulfate, resource recycling

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