Corresponding Author

Yuan-Hong Xu (yhxu@qdu.edu.cn);
Jing-Hong Li (jhli@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn)


Pathogenic bacteria have been throwing great threat on human health for thousands of years. Their real-time monitoring is in urgent need as it could effectively halt the spread of pathogenic bacteria and thus reducing the risk to human health. Up till now, diverse technologies such as electrochemistry, optics, piezoelectricity and calorimetry have been developed for bacteria sensing. Therein, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based sensors show great potential in point-of-care bacterial analysis because of their low-cost, short read-out time, good reproducibility, and portable equipment construction. In this review, we will primarily summarize the typical applications of electrochemical impedance technology in bacteria sensing based on different electrodes in the last three years. As we know, the electrode materials play an extremely important role in the construction of EIS-based sensors because not only the immobilization of bio-recognition elements for bacteria, but also the sensitivity, economical efficiency and portability of the as-prepared sensors are mainly determined by the electrode materials. Therefore, in order to provide new researchers a clear preparation process for EIS-based sensors fabricated with different electrodes, we try to classify the EIS-based sensors according to the different electrode platforms. Moreover, present difficulties, future directions

and perspectives for their applications are also discussed. It can provide guidance in future study of novel EIS-based sensors for rapid, sensitive and accurate sensing of diverse pathogenic bacteria.

Graphical Abstract


Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; pathogenic bacteria detection; bio-recognition elements; electrode material

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Publication Date


Online Available Date


Revised Date


Received Date




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.