Corresponding Author

Lan Sun(sunlan@xmu.edu.cn);
Chang-Jian Lin(cjlin@xmu.edu.cn)


Ammonia (NH3) is an essential chemical in modern society. It is currently produced in industry by the Haber-Bosch process using H2 and N2 as reactants in the presence of iron-based catalysts at high-temperature (400–600 oC) and extremely highpressure (20–40 MPa) conditions. However, its efficiency is limited to 10% to 15%. At the same time, a large amount of energy is consumed, and CO2 emission is inevitably. The development of a sustainable, clean, and environmentally friendly energy system represents a key strategy to address energy crisis and environmental pollution, ultimately aiming to achieve carbon neutrality. Within this framework, semiconductor photocatalytic nitrogen fixation leverages green and pollution-free solar energy to produce NH3 — an essential chemical raw material. This innovative process offers a sustainable alternative to the conventional chemical NH3 production method that involves tremendous energy consumption and environmental pollution. Herein, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the photo(electroc)catalytic nitrogen fixation reaction, covering influencing factor, experimental equipment of photocatalysis, electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis, characteristics, and reaction mechanism. Particularly, recent advances in semiconductor photocatalyst, photo(electro)catalytic nitrogen fixation system, and photo(electro)catalytic nitrogen fixation mechanism are discussed. Future research directions in solar photo(electro)catalytic nitrogen fixation technology are also outlined.

Graphical Abstract


Solar energy; Photo(electro)catalysis; Nitrogen fixation

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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