The major reason for Al_anode's activation is that Ga and Sn deposit on the aluminum surface and form activated points. The Al_Sn and Al_Ga binary alloys can't be activated in alkaline medium. During the dissolution of the Al_Sn_Ga ternary anode, Sn and Ga dissolve into the solution and transform into ions. After the Sn ions deposit on the surface of Al_anode, the Ga ions will deposit on Sn. The higher activation of the polynary alloy anode is caused by much more new activated points composed of Ga_Sn alloy being continually formed. Ga_Sn alloy with low melting point deposited on the surface of Al can implant in the oxide film with single or multi_atoms because of their fluidity, and form active points which can separate oxide film locally. This is the key for activation of Al alloy.


Al_anode, Activation mechanism, Activated points

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