Corresponding Author

Xinghua Xia(xhxia@nju.edu.cn)


The electrochemical properties of 1-pyrenebutyric acid/graphene composites (PBA/G) obtained by one-step synthesis via π-π stacking was investigated. The electrochemical impedance titration curve shows the surface charge changes as function of solution pH by using ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox couple as the probe. An apparent pKa value is estimated as 6.2 according to the impedance titration curve. In addition, a glucose biosensor was constructed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) on the surface of PBA/G via covalent interaction. This biosensor shows a linear response to glucose within the concentration up to 5 mmol L-1 with a detection limit of 0.085 mmol L-1. A small apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (5.40 mmol L-1) of the immobilized GOD suggests that the immobilized GOD retains its bioactivity and shows high catalytic activity to glucose.

Graphical Abstract


1-pyrenebutyric acid, graphene, glucose oxidase, electrochemical biosensor, glucose

Publication Date


Online Available Date


Revised Date


Received Date



[1] Stoller M D, Park S, Zhu Y W, et al. Graphene-based ultracapacitors[J]. Nano Letters, 2008, 8(10): 3498-3502.

[2] Schedin F, Geim A K, Morozov S V, et al. Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene[J]. Nature Materials, 2007, 6(9): 652-655.

[3] Zhou M, Zhai Y M, Dong S J. Electrochemical sensing and biosensing platform based on chemically reduced graphene oxide[J]. Analytical Chemistry, 2009, 81(14): 5603-5613.

[4] Lee H, Ihm J, Cohen M L, et al. Calcium-decorated graphene-based nanostructures for hydrogen storage[J]. Nano Letters, 2010, 10(3): 793-798.

[5] Gilje S, Han S, Wang M S, et al. A chemical route to graphene for device applications[J]. Nano Letters, 2007, 7(11): 3394-3398.

[6] Park S, Ruoff R S. Chemical methods for the production of graphenes[J]. Nature Nanotechnology, 2009, 4(4): 217-224.

[7] Shinde D B, Debgupta J, Kushwaha A, et al. Electrochemical unzipping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for facile synthesis of high-quality graphene nanoribbons[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2011, 133(12): 4168-4171.

[8] Zeng Q, Cheng J S, Tang L H, et al. Self-assembled graphene-enzyme hierarchical nanostructures for electrochemical biosensing[J]. Advanced Functional Materials, 2010, 20(19): 3366-3372.

[9] Zhang Q, Qiao Y, Hao F, et al. Fabrication of a biocompatible and conductive platform based on a single-stranded DNA/graphene nanocomposite for direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis[J]. Chemistry-A European Journal, 2010, 16(27): 8133-8139.

[10] Kang X H, Wang J, Wu H, et al. Glucose oxidase-graphene-chitosan modified electrode for direct electrochemistry and glucose sensing[J]. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2009, 25(4): 901-905.

[11] Wang M, Xiao F N, Wang K, et al. Electric field driven protonation/deprotonation of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid immobilized on graphene sheets via π-π stacking[J]. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2012, in press: doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2012.07.036.

[12] Wang Y, Shao Y Y, Matson D W, et al. Nitrogen-doped graphene and its application in electrochemical biosensing[J]. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(4): 1790-1798.

[13] Chen D, Tang L, Li J H. Graphene-based materials in electrochemistry[J]. Chemical Society Review, 2010, 39(8): 3157-3180.

[14] Wang Y, Li Z H, Wang J, et al. Graphene and graphene oxide: Biofunctionalization and applications in biotechnology[J]. Trends in Biotechnology, 2011, 29(5): 205-212.

[15] Zhang Q, Wu S, Zhang L, et al. Fabrication of polymeric ionic liquid/graphene nanocomposite for glucose oxidase immobilization and direct electrochemistry[J]. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2011, 26(5): 2632-2637.

[16] Chen S H, Duhamel J, Bahun G J, et al. Quantifying the presence of unwanted fluorescent species in the study of pyrene-labeled macromolecules[J]. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2011, 115(33): 9921-9929.

[17] Chen R J, Zhang Y G, Wang D W, et al. Noncovalent sidewall functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes for protein immobilization[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2001, 123(16): 3838-3839.

[18] Xu Y X, Bai H, Lu G W, et al. Flexible graphene films via the filtration of water-soluble noncovalent functionalized graphene sheets[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2008, 130(18): 5856-5857.

[19] Gao W C, Dong H F, Lei J P, et al. Signal amplification of streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase functionalized carbon nanotubes for amperometric detection of attomolar DNA[J]. Chemical Communications, 2011, 47: 5220-5222.

[20] Liu F, Choi K S, Park T J, et al. Graphene-based electrochemical biosensor for pathogenic virus detection[J]. BioChip Journal, 2011, 5(2): 123-128.

[21] Guo H L, Wang X F, Qian Q Y, et al. A green approach to the synthesis of graphene nanosheets[J]. ACS Nano, 2009, 3(9): 2653-2659.

[22] Guldi D M, Rahman G M A, Jux N, et al. Functional single-wall carbon nanotube nanohybrids associating SWNTs with water-soluble enzyme model systems[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2005, 127(27): 9830-9838.

[23] Zhao J W, Luo L Q, Yang X R, et al. Determination of surface pKa of SAM using an electrochemical titration method[J]. Electroanalysis, 1999, 11(15): 1108-1113.

[24] Tulock J J, Blanchard G J. Role of probe molecule structure in sensing solution phase interactions in ternary systems[J]. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 2000, 104(36): 8340-8345.

[25] Hu L Z, Han S, Liu Z Y, et al. A versatile strategy for electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide as well as related enzymes and substrates based on selective hydrogen peroxide-mediated boronate deprotection[J]. Electrochemistry Communications, 2011, 13(12): 1536-1538.

[26] Jia W Z, Wang K, Zhu Z J, et al. One-step immobilization of glucose oxidase in a silica matrix on a Pt electrode by an electrochemically induced sol-gel process[J]. Langmuir, 2007, 23(23): 11896-11900.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.