Corresponding Author

Yan-xuan WEN(wenyanxuan@vip.163.com)


In this work, NaxMnO2 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction. The influences of Na:Mn ratio on the structure, morphology and electrochemical performance, and sodium ion intercalation/deintercalation processes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge test. The prepared NaxMnO2 was mainly composed of Na0.7MnO2 and Na0.91MnO2, and the content of Na0.91MnO2 increased with the increase of Na:Mn ratio. However, the activation energy values of surface membrane diffusion, interfacial electrochemical reaction and Na+ diffusion in the bulk material first decreased and then increased with the increase of Na:Mn ratio, while the discharge capability first increasedand then decreased with the increase of Na:Mn ratio. The sample synthesized with the Na:Mn ratio of 0.80 delivered a discharge capacity of 152.8 mAh·g-1 with a capacity retention of 80.6% after 50 cycles at 1C. Even being charged/discharged at 5C, this sample still provided a discharge capacity of 88.3 mAh·g-1, showing good cycle-stability and rate performance. The activation energy values of surface membrane diffusion, interfacial electrochemical reaction and solid-phase diffusion were found to be 68.23, 40.07 and 57.62 kJ·mol-1, respectively.

Graphical Abstract


sodium-ion battery, cathode, NaxMnO2, sodium-ion intercalation/deintercalation

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